泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

2020-06-01 16:48:51    作者:王子悅/編譯     來源:中國風景園林網

  項目名稱:泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場(THAMMASAT UNIVERSITY URBAN ROOFTOP FARM)

  項目位置:泰國巴吞他尼府

  場地總面積:60000㎡

  綠色屋頂面積:22000㎡

  項目狀況:建造完成

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  在氣候危機中,糧食和水資源短缺對人類文明構成巨大威脅。曼谷和整個東南亞地區的城市,曾經是糧食資源豐富的農業社會,現在卻成了不受管制的城市化的受害者。農田變成了滿是農藥的工業化農場,生態系統被污染,完全不顧及公眾健康和人民生活。

  Amidst the climate crisis, food and water scarcity pose tremendous threats to human civilization. Once abundant agrarian societies rich with food sources, Bangkok and cities across Southeast Asia have become victims of unregulated urbanization on rice-producing regions. Agricultural lands have turned into pesticide-laden industrialized farms, polluting ecosystems with no regard for public health and people’s livelihood.

  Landprocess再利用236806平方英尺的屋頂空間,幫助泰國國立法政大學設計并實施了亞洲最大的有機屋頂農場——泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場,同時也成為了一個有效的氣候解決方案。結合現代景觀建筑和傳統梯田的農業獨創性,為校園創造了一個包容性的循環經濟,包括可持續食品生產、可再生能源、有機廢物、水資源管理和公共空間。

  Repurposing 236,806 sq. ft. of wasted rooftop space, the landscape architect helped Thammasat University envision and implement a climate solution with Asia’s largest organic rooftop farm—Thammasat Urban Rooftop Farm (TURF). Integrating modern landscape architecture with the agricultural ingenuity of traditional rice terraces, TURF creates an inclusive circular economy for the campus, incorporating sustainable food production, renewable energy, organic waste, water management and public space for all.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  來自山上的梯田

  RICE TERRACES FROM A MOUNTAIN

  受到東南亞山區傳統農業實踐的獨創性啟發,景觀設計師將梯田的土方工程與現代綠色屋頂技術相結合。236806平方英尺的層疊屋頂與傳統的混凝土屋頂相比,減緩徑流的效率可提高20倍。

  Inspired by the ingenuity of traditional agricultural practices on mountainous terrains across Southeast Asia, TURF’s landscape architect integrated the earthwork of rice terraces with modern green roof technology. The 236,806 sq. ft. cascading rooftop can slow down runoff up to 20 times more efficiently than a conventional concrete rooftop.

  隨著雨水沿斜坡蜿蜒而下,每一層的屋頂都從之前的單元中收集徑流,沿梯田形成獨特的微型集水區,幫助吸收、過濾和凈化雨水,同時為校園種植食物。在盡頭,每個側翼上都有四個蓄水池,可以達到3095570加侖的容量。這些水池大大減少了流出場地的雨水量,同時減輕了意外的洪水和干旱災害。他們提出了一種解決方案,在強風暴期間儲存多余的徑流,以便在干旱期間使用。

  As rainwater zigzags down the slopes, each level of TURF harvests runoff from the previous cell, forming unique clusters of micro-watersheds along the terrace to helping absorb, filter and purify rainwater while growing food for the campus. By the end of its journey, four retention ponds await on each wing, capable of holding up to 3,095,570 gallons of water once combined. These ponds significantly reduce the volume of stormwater leaving the site while mitigating unexpected flood and drought disasters. They present a solution to storing excessive runoff during intense storms for future use during dry spells.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  在四個池塘中重復使用水,景觀實現了對場地水的管理,以減少水對食品生產的影響。一個太陽能泵將儲存起來的水向上推到屋頂進行灌溉。此外,水稻和蔬菜的層疊種植豐富了土壤的營養,減少了大雨期間流失的土壤。這可以防止被污染的徑流以及通過空氣傳播的微粒毒素進入排水系統和自然水體。

  Reusing restoring water at four retention ponds, the TURF manages on-site water management to minimize water footprint on food production. A solar-powered pump pushes stored water upward for roof irrigation. Furthermore, the cascading layers of rice and vegetable plantations enrich the soil’s nutrition, reducing the amount of soil mass lost during heavy rainfall. This prevents polluted runoff as well as particulate airborne toxins from entering drainage systems and natural water bodies.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  用屋頂為人們提供食物

  FEEDING PEOPLE FROM A SINGLE ROOFTOP

  今天,城市化迅速消耗了農業用地,使食物來源進一步遠離城市及其消費者。到2050年,全球80%的人口將居住在城市。為了確保全球糧食安全,并優先考慮人類和環境健康,城市必須利用被浪費的城市空間,以高效和可持續的方式生產糧食。

  Today, urbanization has rapidly consumed agricultural lands, pushing food sources further away from cities and their consumers. By 2050, 80 percent of the world’s population will live in cities. To ensure global food security, and prioritize human and environmental health, cities must utilize wasted urban spaces to produce food efficiently and sustainably.

  如今,泰國是世界五大農藥進口國之一。集約化農業擴張,留下致命的化學有毒廢棄物的痕跡。這片景觀替代了75,300平方英尺的浪費空間,促進了可持續農業、作物多樣性、小型農場系統以及營養的改善。

  Today, Thailand ranks as one of the top five importers of pesticides in the world. Intensive monocrop agriculture continues to expand, scouring natural food sources and leaving trails of deadly chemical toxic waste behind. By replacing 75,300 sq. ft. of what would have been another wasted concrete rooftop with an urban organic farm, the TURF promotes sustainable agriculture, crop diversity, small farm systems as well as improved nutrition.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  除了恢復城市生物多樣性和氣候異常,這座城市農場不僅為人們提供了食物,也為他們提供了營養。這里有40多種可食用的品種,包括TU學者培育的原始水稻品種、本地蔬菜和草本植物、果樹以及其他品種,從耐水品種到抗旱品種應有盡有。每一個都適合獨特的由光照、曲率和屋頂水流所創造的小氣候。

  In addition to restoring urban biodiversity and tackling forthcoming climate irregularities, the urban farm not only feeds people, but also nourishes them. A variety of 40 edible species—including an original rice strain bred by TU academics, indigenous vegetables and herbs, fruit trees and more—range from water-tolerant to drought-resistant. Each is suited to the unique microclimate created by the sunlight exposure, curvature and water flow of the roof’s elevation.

  在場地下方下,是一個咖啡館——也是校園和社區的綠色食堂,直接將農場的新鮮農產品供應到餐桌上。這里每年為社區提供多達20噸的有機食品,相當于每年13萬頓飯。餐廳離屋頂農場很近,完成了可持續的食品生產系統,減少浪費和二氧化碳排放。在循環結束時,所有的有機廢物都被回收作為堆肥,為下一個收獲季節的作物施肥。

  Beneath TURF, a café—a green canteen for the campus and community—serves fresh produce from the farm right to the table. TURF provides up to 20 tons of organic food to the community each year, equating to 130,000 meals annually. In close proximity to TURF, the canteen completes the holistic and sustainable food production system, reducing waste and CO2 emissions from start to finish. By the end of the cycle, all organic waste is recycled back as compost to fertilize crops for the next harvest.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  用閑置的屋頂為社區供電

  POWERING A COMMUNITY FROM AN UNUSED ROOFTOP

  這所大學的綠色屋頂每小時可以產生50萬瓦(相當于2.5萬個電燈泡)的電力,它可以自己發電來灌溉城市農場,并為下面的建筑提供電力。38,373平方英尺的太陽能電池板覆蓋了整個空間的16%,放置在屋頂的南側,以持續暴露在陽光下。

  Capable of producing up to 500,000 watts (an equivalent of 25,000 electric light bulbs) per hour, the University’s green roof can generate its own electricity to irrigate the urban farm and power the building beneath it. For optimal energy generation, the 38,373 sq. ft. of solar panels—covering 16 percent of the space—are placed on the roof's southern side for continuous exposure to sunlight.

  隨著綠色能源和被動冷卻技術的出現,屋頂農場擺脫了對化石燃料的依賴。通過冷卻建筑內外的空氣,它減少了與空調相關的能源消耗產生的溫室氣體排放,也提高了保溫性能,為建筑保持涼爽的溫度。

  With green power and passive cooling, TURF pivots away from reliance on fossil fuels. By cooling air both inside and outside the building, it reduces greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption related to air conditioning and also improves insulation to retain a cool temperature for building.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

  層疊屋頂用作公共空間

  CASCADING ROOF AS PUBLIC SPACE

  通過在多山的建筑中進行操作,并最大限度地利用其傾斜的表面,項目利用地形的每一層來創建多功能的公共空間。斜坡上12個單獨設計的區域作為橢圓形的室外教室,而沿著樓梯分布的小口袋空間則提供了親密的社交空間和通向農作物的通道。爬到頂部的人可以360度俯瞰曼谷全景。一個大型圓形劇場為所有游客提供了一個可達且靈活多變的娛樂教育空間。

  By carving into the mountainous architecture and maximizing the use of the inclined surface, TURF utilizes every level of the terrain to create multi-functional public spaces. Twelve individually designed areas on the slopes serve as oval-shaped outdoor classrooms, while small pockets dispersed along the staircases provide intimate social spaces and access to the crops. TURF rewards those who climb to the top with a 360-degree panoramic view of the Bangkok centered in an urban farm and under the open sky. A large amphitheater provides an accessible and flexible recreational and educational space for all visitors.

  當茂盛的綠色變成干棕色,屋頂農場成為一個現實的、充滿希望的解決方案,讓現代城市居民回到祖先的農業實踐。景觀設計師受到當地獨創性的啟發,實施了一種整體方法。就像幾代農民從土地和水中學習,屋頂農場項目秉承泰國文化歷史、風景,為社區和城市建設者提供機會學習如何適應并接受在建設可持續城市時氣候的挑戰。

  As lush green turns to dry brown, TURF is a realistic, but hopeful solution that puts modern urban dwellers back in tune with ancestral agricultural practices. The landscape architect implemented a holistic approach inspired by local ingenuity. Carried on through several generations of farmers who learned from the land and water they lived with—TURF holds with it the history of Thai culture, landscape and native soil, embedded as lessons to communities and city builders on how to adapt to and embrace climate challenges  in building the sustainable cities of the future.

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

泰國國立法政大學城市屋頂農場

編輯:王子悅

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